Flora of Libya

الصفحة الرئيسية

Flora of Libya


The Libyan flora was last documented in a series of volumes published between 1976 and 1989, and completed under the editorship of Ali,S.I., Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (1977-1989) in 150 parts, and published by Al Faateh University.

This is a good work, But the lack of an update or revision since 1989. This led to the delay of the Libyan Flora from the evolution in the naming and classification,

Means that the Libyan Flora is now out of date and requires a reassessment using modern approaches.

Given the importance of continuous updating of information about the Libyan flora, this 5-year work was completed, the complete information on plant species registered in the Libyan flora has been converted into a database.
The web site:

This site is an individual work I have done to provide information to researchers interested in Libyan wild plants, flora and vegetation researchers, universities, research centers, Government bodies, and civil society, interested in protecting biodiversity.

The work continued for five years, started in 2015 in stages as follows:

Phase I:

This phase took one year of work, started in December 2015.

I listed all the species recorded in the Libyan Flora Encyclopedia, in alphabetical ( Families, Genera, species) in primary compilation tables.

Phase II:

This phase took one year of work, started in January 2016.

I compiled all the research done on the Libyan plants published in scientific journals on the Internet, what I was able to get from the researches published in scientific journals printed , what I was able to get from the lists of plants in the master's theses awarded in Libyan universities, and I included all the plant species recorded in these studies.

Phase III:

This phase took two years of work, started in December 2017

At this stage, I updated the scientific name of the plant family, plant genera, and plant species by referring to the site (http://www.theplantlist.org/1.1/browse/), (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/ ), (http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/ )

I included the new scientific name of species, with the synonyms In case of changing the scientific name of the plant.

A special link was placed in each plant species, for easy reference to the source.

I have included all the data for each plant species, in a table as follows:

The scientific name: source information (the encyclopedia of the Libyan flora, the researches, and master's theses, and updated the scientific name from site (http://www.theplantlist.org/1.1/browse/), (http://www.worldfloraonline.org/), (http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/)

Life form: source information (encyclopedia of the Libyan flora, and the some sites of the plant species images).

Distribution in Libya: (Coastal area- Jabal Nafusa area- Al-Jabal Al-Akhder area- Simi- Sahara & Sahara area), source information (the encyclopedia of the Libyan flora, and researches, and master's theses).

Phytochoria: source information (the encyclopedia of the Libyan flora and the site https://www.gbif.org/), (http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/)

Flowering period: Source information (encyclopedia of the Libyan flora, and the some sites of the plant species images ).

Local name: source information (the encyclopedia of the Libyan flora, and researches, and master's theses).

Some notices: source information (the encyclopedia of the Libyan flora, and researches, and master's theses).

All images attached to the plant species are listed under the site link from which you took to preserve the property rights.

The spreadsheet is designed as follows:



Life form

Distribution in Libya


Flowering period




Coastal area

Jabal Nafusa area

Al-Jabal Al-Akhder area

Simi- Sahara & Sahara area






Pancratium maritimum L.


Reported from Tripoli & Misurata by Keith Leptus Magna 1970 Deriana, (40 km) from Benghazi 1972 Surman 1977 Misurata 2006, 2008

Reported from Al-Khoms by Keith

Wadi Al-Agar 2017

Sirte 2015



Nuar el Kalb













Phase IV: Database design and data entry

-This phase started in December 2018.

- In December 2018, The format required to display the data was suggested.

- In January 2019 Started Dr. Hamida Mohamed Al Manqoush designed the database,

- The design phase and initial testing of data entry took six months.

- Full data entry started in July 2019.

And still continue to complete updating data is continuing with regard to the geographical distribution of plant species, and updating the list of endemic species.

Important Notice:

All information related to the registration of plant species in the different regions of Libya has been included from the Libyan Flora Encyclopedia, published research and master theses obtained,
There are researches and master theses I got information about them from some references and I could not access, and There are many researches and master theses that I could not get any information about. 

I ask all researchers are requested to provide us with their research and master theses so that we can include the information on the registration of plant species in regions of Libya

How to use

To access a taxon page, search a The scientific name of Genera or Species.

Life-form Abbreviations: (Th=Therophytes, Ch=Chamaephytes, Hy=Hydrophytes, He=Helophyte, Cl=Climber, G=Geophytes, Pa =Parasites, N-Ph=Nano-Phanerophytes, Ph=Phanerophytes, Li=Lianes, Su=Succulent}

Phytochoria Abbreviations (MED=Mediterranean, ES=Eru-Siberan, SA=Saharo-Arabian, IT=Irano-Turanian, SZ=Sudano-Zambezian and Saharo-Zambezian, SS=Saharo Sindian , Tro.= Tropical, S.Tro=Sub Tropical, Pal=Palaeotopical,

Pan.Tr=Pantropical,S,Afr.=North Africa,S,Afr,=South Africa, COSM=Cosmopolitan,S.Cosm=Sub cosmopolitan).

Flowering period: Period of flowering of plant species in the Libyan environment.


Scientific Editor:

Dr. Khadija Ali Baayo

Assistant Professor (Plant Ecology)

Former faculty member, Botany Department-Faculty of Science-Misurata University-Libya.